Resilience Glossary: F – J

Term

Definition

Source

Failure

Inability to achieve a defined performance threshold (response given loading). “Catastrophic” failure describes the situation where the consequences are immediate and severe, whereas “prognostic” failure describes the situation where the consequences only grow to a significant level when additional loading has been applied and/or time has elapsed.

FLOODsite

Failure mode

Description of one of any number of ways in which a defence or system may fail to meet a particular performance indicator.

FLOODsite

Fault tree

A fault tree is a common method to analyse failure probabilities of complex systems. The fault tree is a tool for linking various failure mechanisms leading to an expression of the probability of system failure.

FLOODsite

Filter Drains

Linear drains consisting of trenches filled with a permeable material, often with a perforated pipe in the base of the trench to assist drainage, to store and conduct water; they may also permit infiltration

FMMEP

Filter Strips

Vegetated areas of gently sloping ground designed to drain water evenly off impermeable areas and to filter out silt and other particulates

FMMEP

Filters

Engineered sand filters designed to remove pollutants from runoff

FMMEP

Flash flood

A flash flood is a flood that occurs in a short period of time after a high intensity rainfall event or a sudden massive snow melt. A sudden increase in the level and velocity of the water body is often characteristic of these events. Rising water levels in the river network can reach its peak within minutes to a few hours of the onset of the flood event, leaving an extremely short time for warning. They are localised phenomena that occur in watersheds with maximum response times of a few hours. Therefore, the majority of flash floods occur in streams and small river basins that have a catchment area of a few hundred square kilometres or less.

FLOODsite

Flash flood guidance  (FFG)

A methodology for issuing flood warnings developed in the US which relies on rainfall forecasts and past rainfall to determine catchment condition and does not require runoff modelling. It is not “Guidance” in the meaning of a physical document of accepted good practice on a particular topic.

FLOODsite

Flexibility

Within the context of assessing the sustainability of flood risk systems, flexibility is the ease with which a flood risk system (or strategic alternative) can adapt to changing circumstances without future regrets about decisions and measures implemented.

FLOODsite

Flood

A temporary covering of land by water outside its normal confines

FLOODsite

Flood action plan

A flood action plan is a simple strategy that will allow quick and efficient security of life and valuable resources within a property, which may be a workplace or domestic property

Centre for Resilience

Flood alert

This is a free warning system provided by the Environment Agency. This allows a post-code location service flood warning to be sent to property owners through via phone, text or email.

Centre for Resilience

Flood control (measure)

A structural intervention to limit flooding and so an example of a risk management measure.

FMMEP

Flood damage

Damage to receptors (buildings, infrastructure, goods), production and intangibles (life, cultural and ecological assets) caused by a flood.

FLOODsite

Flood defence structure

Structure designed to provide protection against floods. Synonymous to: flood protection structure, flood control structure, flood protection works, flood control works, flood mitigation works.

FLOWSS

Flood forecasting system

A system designed to forecast flood levels before they occur.

FLOODsite

Flood forum

This is an online advice centre for flood guidance where members can exchange ideas and experiences around flooding as sources of advice for new members.

Centre for Resilience

Flood hazard

Flooding that has the potential to result in harm; the description of flood hazard may include the physical characteristics of a flood at a given point; including depth, duration and velocity. Sometimes flood hazard also includes an assessment of the probability of occurrence, but this is excluded from the definition used here.

FLOODsite

Flood hazard map

map with the predicted or documented extent of flooding, with or without an indication of the flood probability

FMMEP

Flood insurance

Specific type of insurance that offers coverage against property loss from flooding, often based on susceptibility of topographical areas to flood risk.

UFM

Flood inundation model

Flood inundation models are computer programs that simulate the spread of flood water from rivers, coasts or even urban drainage systems.

FLOODsite

Flood level

water level during a flood

FLOODsite

Flood management

Sum of all operational activities to be taken before, during and after an event as well as political and administrative decisions that are aimed at preventing or mitigating a flood event.

FMMEP

Flood management measures

Actions that are taken to reduce either the probability of flooding or the consequences of flooding or some combination of the two.

FLOODsite

Flood mitigation

Measures taken in order to protect people or property from the damaging effect of water; Synonymical: Flood damage mitigation, Flood control, Flood protection, Flood defence

FMMEP

Flood mitigation measures

Mitigation measures are planned actions or structures that will be triggered if a certain risk become real and it is treated as an issue that must be resolved. Mitigation plans take into account contingencies and preventive measures as well protective measures that must be put in place to avoid the realisation of the risk. Related to floods mitigation measures are methods of reducing the effects of floods. These methods may be structural solutions (e.g. reservoirs, levees) or non-structural (e.g. land-use planning, early warning systems).

FMMEP

Flood mitigation scheme

General description of the possible measures to be taken in order to guarantee appropriate flood safety in particular area.

FMMEP

Flood peak

Highest water level recorded in the river during a flood.

FLOODsite

Flood plain

part of alluvial plain that would be naturally flooded in the absence of engineered interventions

FLOODsite

Flood Plain Maps

Flood plain maps (or flood maps) indicate the geographical areas that could be covered by a flood according to one or several probabilities. These can range from floods with a very low probability (extreme events with a return period of say 1000 years); floods with a medium probability (a return period of say 100 years); floods with a high probability (a return period of say 5 years).

FLOODsite

Flood prevention

actions to prevent the occurrence of an extreme discharge peak

FLOODsite

Flood probability reduction measures

Measures which restore the retention potential of the natural hydrological system or even enhance the detention of rain water through small retention basins (Pasche, 2008 via Spekkers).

SMARTeST

Flood proofing

Measures to seal off buildings from floods by constructional changes at or near by the property, a kind of retrofitting measures

FMMEP

Flood protection (measure)

To protect a certain area from inundation (using dikes etc.)

FLOODsite

Flood resilience

The ability to cope with flooding and the ability to recover from flooding (Zevenbergen, adapted NL)

SMARTeST

Flood resilience measures

A plan, or course of action, which provides resilience to flooding (OED/NL)

SMARTeST

Flood resilience systems

A set of things working together as parts of a mechanism.  An interconnecting network which facilitates resilience to flooding (NL).                                                   In the context of SMARTeST, “system” is an all-embracing one covering urban flood under various flood type scenarios (riverine, pluvial, flash, coastal, groundwater, etc.)  and embracing all flood management systems (warning systems, emergency service systems, drainage systems,  flood  risk models, resilience and protection systems, societal and stakeholder issues, flood risk management and governance, etc.) and over various scales from house to street to neighbourhood to city to conurbation to region to country. (Garvin and Lawson)

SMARTeST

Flood resilience technologies

Technology which provide resilience to flooding, e.g. technologies with the ability to resist flooding and to enable protection to/from flooding.

SMARTeST

Flood risk management

Continuous and holistic societal analysis, assessment and mitigation of flood risk.

FLOODsite

Flood risk mapping

Visualising the results of risk assessment on a map, showing the levels of expected losses which can be anticipated in specific areas, during a particular time period, as a result of a particular flood event describes the process or activity of flood risk mapping.

FMMEP

Flood risk zoning

delineation of areas with different possibilities and limitations for investments, based on flood hazard maps

FLOODsite

Flood survival kit

A flood survival kit contains all the information that is required in order to stay safe during a flood. The content list for this can be found on our “Making a Flood Plan” page

Centre for Resilience

Flood vacuum

A flood vacuum is a household appliance that works much in the same way as a conventional vacuum cleaner but removes water and suspended sediments. This is suitable for small amounts of floodwater entering a property but is a final effort to prevent floodwater ingress and should not replace traditional resistance/resilience flood measures.

Centre for Resilience

Flood walls

Barriers made of concrete or masonry, a kind of flood proofing measures.

FMMEP

Flood Warning

A flood warning indicates there is flooding expected and immediate action should be taken.

Centre for Resilience

Flood warning system (FWS)

A system designed to warn members of the public of the potential of imminent flooding. Typically linked to a flood forecasting system

FLOODsite

Flooding System (in context)

In broad terms, a system may be described as the social and physical domain within which risks arise and are managed. An understanding of the way a system behaves and, in particular, the mechanisms by which it may fail, is an essential aspect of understanding risk. This is true for an organisational system like flood warning, as well as for a more physical system, such as a series of flood defences protecting a flood plain.

FLOODsite

Floor damp proof membrane (DPM)

A damp proof membrane (DPM) is a durable waterproof sheet installed beneath the floor, in walls or a ceiling to keep moisture out. A DPM is always installed in conjunction with a damp proof course (DPC).

Reference.com

Focus Groups

A qualitative research technique whereby carefully selected groups (8 to 12 participants) are brought together under skilled presenters (researchers) to exchange views on defined subjects and to bring forward the most possible number of views from a group. It provides knowledge and understanding as opposed to measuring quotas. Because of this it gives insight in how people think and why, but not to what extent the different views are shared by others.

FMMEP

Fragility

The propensity of a particular defence or system to fail under a given load condition. Typically expressed as a fragility function curve relating load to probability of failure. Combined with descriptors of decay/deterioration, fragility functions enable future performance to be described.

FLOODsite

Fragility curve

The likelihood of a flood defence structure failing under a given load is often referred to as its ‘fragility’. A probabilistic measure of a structure’s performance is typically expressed as a fragility curve relating ‘loading’ to ‘probability of failure’.

FLOODsite

Frequency

specific number of events, often related to a timeframe (in the case of Return Period this is usually expressed in years)

FMMEP

Functional design

The design of an intervention with a clear understanding of the performance required of the intervention.

FLOODsite

Gabions

Control points slowing the flow of water.

FMMEP

GIS

GIS is the abbreviation for Geographic Information System. GIS is a computer hardware and software system designed to collect, manipulate, analyse, and display spatially referenced data for solving complex resource, environmental and social problems. GIS are especially useful in management planning and land-use decisions on a landscape scale.

FMMEP

Governance

The processes of decision making and implementation

FLOODsite

Green Roofs

Vegetated roofs that reduce the volume and rate of runoff and remove pollution

FMMEP

Harm

Disadvantageous consequences, economic, social or environmental. (See Consequence).

FLOODsite

Hazard

A physical event, phenomenon or human activity with the potential to result in harm. A hazard does not necessarily lead to harm.

FLOODsite,

Hazard awareness

Flood hazard awareness describes the notion, the understanding of dangers that can emerge from a flood. Thus it is essential for self-protection, as it implies hazard-adapted behaviour. It is also seen as precondition for flood protection measures and their endurance or sustainability. Hazard awareness normally evolves from experience of the adverse effects, consequential to a hazard.

FMMEP

Hazard map

Hazard maps show the extent of flood prone areas considering hydrodynamic impacts on buildings, infrastructure and environment and considering the variability of magnitudes of the expected events. Different zones are designated classifying the intensity of danger related to the probability of occurrences.

FMMEP

Hazard mapping

The process of establishing the spatial extents of hazardous phenomena.

FLOODsite

Hazard, natural

“Natural processes or phenomena occurring in the biosphere that may constitute a damaging event.” (UNDP, 2004)

UFM

Hierarchy

A process where information cascades from a greater spatial or temporal scale to lesser scale and vice versa.

FLOODsite

Household Flood Resilience Grant

The Household Flood Resilience Grant Scheme is a national scheme, allowing for up to £5000 funding from the UK government in order to offset the cost of flood resistance and resilience measures, to repair damage caused between 3rd and 11th December 2015. Further details on this scheme are available here.

Centre for Resilience

Human reliability

Probability that a person correctly performs a specified task.

FLOODsite

Human security

“Human Security is about attaining the social, political, environmental and economic conditions conducive to a life in freedom and dignity for the individual.” (Hammerstad, 2000)

UFM

Hydraulic modelling

Hydraulic models are based on calculation techniques, which solve mathematical or physical equations to simulate water systems and make projections relating to water levels, flows and velocities. Hydraulic modelling is the simulation activity.

FMMEP

Ignorance

Lack of knowledge

FLOODsite

Implementation

Put (FRe technologies and systems) into effect. (OED)

SMARTeST

Indirect, tangible damages

Indirect damages are losses that occur due to the interruption of some activity by the flood, e.g. the loss of production due to business interruption in and outside the affected area or traffic disruption. These also include the extra costs of emergency and other actions taken to prevent flood damage and other losses. These are tangible when they can be specified in monetary terms.

FLOODsite

Infiltration devices

Sub-surface structures to promote the infiltration of surface water to ground. They can be trenches, basins or soakaways.

FMMEP

Innovation Park

Innovation Parks feature full-scale demonstration buildings that have been developed by industry partners.  These buildings display innovative design, materials and technologies which combine to address the development challenges facing regions across the world.

BRE

Innovative technologies

New and/or advanced and/or original FRe technology.

SMARTeST

Institutional uncertainty

Inadequate collaboration and/or trust among institutions, potentially due to poor communication, lack of understanding, overall bureaucratic culture, conflicting sub-cultures, traditions and missions.

FLOODsite

Integrated risk management

An approach to risk management that embraces all sources, pathways and receptors of risk and considers combinations of structural and non-structural solutions.

FLOODsite

Integrated Water Resource Management

IWRM is a process which promotes the co-ordinated management and development of water, land and related resources, in order to maximise the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems

FLOODsite

Integration

Combining one thing with another to form a whole. (OED)

SMARTeST

Interactive Learning Groups

Interactive learning can be defined as the learning that occurs when individuals advance their understanding through dialogue. The individuals can be groups of learners working together, single learners engaged with a tutor or interactive computer, and groups of learners interacting with one or more experts.

FMMEP

Intervention

A planned activity designed to effect an improvement in an existing natural or engineered system (including social, organisation/defence systems).

FLOODsite

Inundation

Flooding of land with water. (NB: In certain European languages this can refer to deliberate flooding, to reduce the consequences of flooding on nearby areas, for example. The general definition is preferred here.)

FLOODsite

Inundation maps (Flood)

Maps that present the water level and area prone to flooding. In some European countries it is connected with a given return period. As for instance; 10 years floods, 50 years floods, 100 years floods etc.

FMMEP

Judgement

Decisions taken arising from the critical assessment of the relevant knowledge.

FLOODsite

button-5